Sovereignty for the Native American Indians
As stated in the Wikipedia article “Johnson v. M’Intosh,” Chief Justice John Marshall affirmed in this 1823 case the “discovery doctrine,” by which a European power gains radical title, i.e. sovereignty, to the land it “discovers”. This “discovering” power includes the legal right to extinguish the “right of occupancy” of the indigenous occupants. When the States declared independence from Great Britain, the United States government inherited the British legal right of preemption over Native American lands. Hence, the U.S. government had the sole legal right of negotiations and land transfers with the Native American nations.